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   2016| January-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since October 7, 2016

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A comparative analysis of cybercrime and cyberlaws in Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates
Muhammad Bakhsh, Amjad Mahmood, Israr Iqbal Awan
January-June 2016, 1(1):9-15
The usage of web applications especially social media is increasing day by day. Moreover, the usage of information and communication technology applications both in public and private sector is the need of the hour since the usage of these applications has improved working efficiency. On the other side, excessive use of computer networks and its applications has augmented the issues of cybercrime, and there exist cyberlaws to deal these crimes but in developing countries, these laws are not matured. Furthermore, cyberlaws have been developed in almost every developed and developing country, but their implementation is weak, especially in Southeast Asia and the Middle East due to law unawareness in the masses. An attempt has been made in this paper to analyze the cybercrimes and cyberlaws, a part from the review of these laws in accordance with Pakistan and gulf countries.
  5,811 708 -
Ambulance response time to cardiac emergencies in Riyadh
Khalid Alnemer, Khalid I Al-Qumaizi, Ahmed Alnemer, Ammar Alsayegh, Alwaleed Alqahtani, Yasser Alrefaie, Mohammed Alkhalifa, Ahmed Alhariri
January-June 2016, 1(1):33-38
Background: Ambulance response time (ART) plays a significant role in patient survival, especially in cardiac emergencies; qualifying as the crucial factor to measure the quality of prehospital emergency care. Thus, this retrospective, cross-sectional study aimed to measure the ART to public cardiac emergencies and to analyze its association with patient survival in Riyadh. Methods: Records of cardiac emergency medical services from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority for 1 year (January 1, 2013–December 31, 2013) in Riyadh were requisitioned. ART was calculated for 18 stations across Riyadh and assessed for confounding factors such as time (day of the week and time of the day), age, gender, and location of the incident. Results: The mean ART was approximately 13 min, with a trend toward prolongation during working hours on weekdays. ART and survival were unaffected by gender and location of the incident but was confounded by the age of the patient (P = 0.001). Conclusions/Recommendations: ART was much longer than the defined international standard of 8 min and comparable to other regions of the world. We recommend the use of motorcycles to transport paramedics to the emergency site, air ambulance, and dedicated ambulance lanes to reduce ART.
  4,941 431 -
Cyber security in civil aviation
Adrie Stander, Jacques Ophoff
January-June 2016, 1(1):23-26
Introduction: A number of recent claims in the media suggest it is possible to hack into avionics systems and control aircraft from a distance. While cyber security is not seen as a critical issue in aviation at the moment, it is likely to become much more important in the future through the accelerated adoption of information technologies in aviation. Objective: This study aims to determine if there are grounds for such claims. The aim of this paper is not to show how to compromise the information systems of an aircraft, but to indicate that this is not impossible and that vulnerabilities exist. Methodology: Since experimental work in this area is difficult, for obvious reasons, an extensive literature survey was conducted in order to find material related to the subject. Most of the material found is of a theoretical nature and even where possible vulnerabilities were identified it is difficult to show that it could be exploited in real life. Results: The study has found that steps are taken by aircraft manufacturers and controlling bodies to prevent the occurrence of such incidents. However, possible vulnerabilities exist and coordinated action is needed by the aviation industry as a whole, to determine and eradicate such vulnerabilities. Vulnerabilities are likely to increase with the move towards fly-by-wire aircraft.
  3,808 452 -
Do people intend to purchase using their smartphone apps? The effect of the privacy concerns among Malaysian buyers
Zakariya Belkhamza
January-June 2016, 1(1):16-22
Introduction: The rise of e commerce and m commerce has brought to intention the privacy concern among mobile buyers, and studies showed that it is an important factor of attitude and intention to buy products or services through smartphones. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the issue of privacy concerns on the purchasing intention among the Malaysian buyers. This was performed by investigating the relationship between the privacy concerns and the intention to purchase using smartphone apps. Methodology: This study gathered data from individual consumers aged between 20 and 40 years old since these consumers have the capability to acquire not just free apps but also paid apps along with better experience in using smartphones. Respondents must also have experienced purchasing and installing smartphone apps through app stores or repositories such as Google Play Store and Apple Store. The research uses nonprobability convenience sampling and snowball sampling as it has been widely used by researchers and academicians in the past with regard to investigating consumer behaviors on e commerce related issues Results: The paper provides significant insights on the issue of privacy concern in the usage of smartphone apps stores which can help the developers such as Google and Apple to improve their apps stores to provide better protection for the users' privacy and security in Malaysia.
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Protecting the content through learning object metadata
Shaina Raza, Syed Raza Bashir
January-June 2016, 1(1):3-8
The web is full of numerous educational resources but they are not being properly used by the educators. There is so much pedagogical content available on the open web that is being ignored. A lot of learning initiatives stepped in to propose recommendations and guidelines to ensure interoperability of digital content. This has led to the development of learning objects repository (LOR) whose goals are interoperability, reuse, sharing, and retrieval of learning content. However, at the same time, the reproduction of learning material should not breach the copyright protection of the right holders as it is an act of cybercrime. In the lifecycle of LOR development, learning objects (LOs) are annotated using metadata descriptors to specify their syntax and semantics. This annotation process has led to the development of learning objects metadata (LOM) whose ultimate goals are to make searching and cataloging of LOs an easier task. LOM standard includes a number of sections, one of which is the “Rights” category which takes care of intellectual property rights and terms for the use of an LO. This paper presents the idea that how learning resources are annotated using LOM standard and how this annotation contributes to anti-cybercrime in formal education. More specifically, the paper tells that the “Rights” category and some related elements that work together for the provision of protection to the content holders. The paper also suggests that there should be some standardized mechanism for the automatic annotation of LOs so as to give copyright protection on permanent basis.
  3,466 403 -
Promoting research in applied sciences in Saudi Arabia
Khalid Bin Abdulrahman
January-June 2016, 1(1):1-2
  3,447 416 -
Cyber insecurity as a manifestation of new form of global urban vulnerability
Aliyu Salisu Barau
January-June 2016, 1(1):27-32
Introduction: As unprecedented urbanization continues to unfold; cities increasingly depend on the expanding internet of things (IoT). Cyber-attacks and insecurity are the emerging challenges that remain least investigated. Methods: To address this challenge, an online survey was conducted to gain insights from experts resident in 32 cities from Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The issues covered in the survey include types of devices for accessing the internet, time spent accessing the internet, extent of city dependency on IoT, feeling about cyber-attack threats, services most vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Results: The study concludes that vulnerability of urban population to cyber-attacks is inevitable at present. As more people and cities are connected to digital devices the more, they comprise their privacy and security. Unlike conventional urban vulnerability, the knowledge of managing cyber vulnerability is limited to a few individuals and corporations. Conclusion: To promote the culture of cyber-attack resilience, people need to understand the basic ideas behind malware (viruses, worms, and trojans) and cryptography.
  3,498 351 -
Clinical relevance of hypothyroidism screening in a child with an unexplained elevated serum creatinine
Mosleh Jabari, Hassan Alshehri
January-June 2016, 1(1):39-41
The association of hypothyroidism with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow is widely mentioned in the literature. However, elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) is not frequently described in the textbooks and literature as an indicator of hypothyroidism. Here, we present a 6-year-old girl who had deprived the energy for vigorous physical activity and reported fatigue to perform her daily activities with no other history of significant medical conditions with unremarkable physical examination. All her initial laboratory findings were within the normal range except an increased SCr level (75 μmol/L). The presence of nonspecific symptoms and unexplained elevation of SCr led to endocrinological investigations, which revealed hypothyroidism caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Replacement therapy with thyroxine improved her hypothyroid state and SCr level to normal after 6 weeks. Therefore, we recommend measurement of thyroid function in these patients to rule out the likelihood of hypothyroidism.
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