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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2020
Volume 5 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-73

Online since Friday, August 7, 2020

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Effects of wet cupping on chronic pain: A retrospective study p. 47
Ezzuddin A Okmi, Rajaa M Al-Raddadi, Soad K Al Jaouni
Introduction: Pain is considered a major clinical problem and is a source of social and economic burden for many people. Problem Statement: Many patients experiencing pain find conventional treatments to be moderately effective; however, they often experience adverse side effects, leaving them to seek complementary and alternative therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wet-cupping therapy (WCT) for the treatment of several chronic pain conditions and additionally to evaluate whether these effects differ according to the time of application during any lunar month in the Islamic lunar calendar. Material and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted using data from the records of patients who attended the Hijama Clinic of King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2017 to December 2017. In total, 347 patients visited the clinic during 2017; 231 of these patients experienced pain, and 117 of these patients met the inclusion criteria for participation. Scores from the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the effect of wet cupping on pain intensity. Results: A Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that the median (Mdn) VAS scores at 1 month postintervention (Mdn = 5) were significantly lower than the Mdn VAS scores at baseline (Mdn = 7, P = 0.000). Results from a Mann–Whitney U-test revealed that the difference in Mdn VAS scores of patients with headaches and migraines who received WCT during the second half of the lunar month (Mdn = 3) was significantly higher than the difference in Mdn in VAS scores of patients who received WCT during the first half of the lunar month (Mdn = 0, P = 0.005). Conclusion: A single application of WCT appeared to effectively treat several chronic pain-related conditions for at least 4 weeks. In addition, the improvement in pain severity may be enhanced when WCT is performed during the second half of the lunar month.
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Association between anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics among medical students in Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia p. 53
Fahad Abdullah Alateeq
Background: Anxiety is a common medical issue in Saudi Arabia, particularly among medical students. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the association between anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were distributed among medical students to investigate the presence of anxiety disorders among them and the associated demographic factors. The study included medical students of different education years at the Faculty of Medicine, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University. A questionnaire formed of 35 questions was distributed electronically among the students by the help of the leader of each educational year. The level of anxiety of each student was determined according to the score of questionnaire answers and the Beck Anxiety Inventory; where the score of 0–21 = no or low anxiety, score of 22–35 = moderate anxiety, score of 36 and above = severe or potentially concerning levels of anxiety. Results: Three hundred and sixteen medical students completed the questionnaire with a response rate 90%. Anxiety was identified in 201/316 (63.6%) students; 98/201 (48.7%) students were with moderate anxiety, and 103/201 (51.3%) with severe anxiety. Out of the 236 males, 136/236 (57.6%) were found to have anxiety, whereas, of the 80 females, 65/80 (81.3%) were found to have anxiety. About 51.3% of the females were found to have severe anxiety compared to only 26.3% of the males. Conclusion: Anxiety is a common problem among medical students of Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia with more prevalence among female medical students compared to males. Furthermore, there was a significant association between satisfaction to study medicine and decreased anxiety development. However, there was no significant association between anxiety and the other studied sociodemographic factors.
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Umm Al-Qura University Medical Students' and interns' perceptions on surgery and surgical career: A cross-sectional study p. 61
Osama A Bawazir, Omemh Abdullah Bawazeer
Background: The number of applicants to surgical specialties has decreased worldwide. Several factors contribute to this decline, and early intervention is essential to correct students' misconception about surgical training. The aim of this study was to explore the perception of Umm Al-Qura University Medical Students and Interns about surgery and a career in surgery. Methods: We conducted an institutional-based cross-sectional study at Umm Al-Qura Medical College in Makkah to explore 6th year students' and interns' perception about surgical specialties. The participants were divided into four groups: Group 1 (female 6th year; n = 144); Group 2 (male 6th year; n = 133); Group 3 (female intern; n = 81); and Group 4 (male intern; n = 25). Participation was mandatory for students, and the response rate was 100% in Group 1 and 96% (132/138) in Group 2. Participation was optional for interns, and the response rate was 65% (78/120) in Group 3 and 21% (25/118) in Group 4. Results: Eighty-one percent of the participants think that going to the medical school was a wise decision, and the choice of nonsurgical career was more prominent in female interns. Career choice increased significantly after the 6th year, and the likelihood of choice of the surgical career was higher in males (P = 0.045); however, the possibility to choose pediatric surgery was equal between groups (P = 0.122). Most participants think there was insufficient ward training, and they agreed that they had inadequate operative room training. Conclusion: The majority of medical students and interns are willing to pursue a career with a reasonable quality of life regardless of the income or the social status of this career, and a surgical career is still considered a stressful and demanding specialty. We recommend more lectures, hands-on training, and workshops directed toward medical students to increase their knowledge about these potential factors, which could alter their decision when choosing a surgical career.
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Comparison of clay soils of different colors existing under the same conditions in a location p. 68
Ubong Williams Robert, Sunday Edet Etuk, Okechukwu Ebuka Agbasi, Grace Peter Umoren
Background: The choice of a suitable soil for an intended application depends, basically on one's thorough knowledge of soil properties. Soil color and thermal properties have been found to vary from place to place. However, there is no scientific information on the properties of a soil type formed with different colors in a location and exposed to the same influence for a reasonable interval of time. Consequently, this leaves room for a great deal of speculation and assumption. Aims and Objectives: This work was aimed at examining and comparing some vital properties of two soil samples of the same soil type formed in a place of a particular relief but are observed to be completely distinct in their colors. In addition, a model for prediction of temperature variation with the thickness of each sample was considered. Materials and Methods: Pink clay and yellow clay got from a location were used to prepare six test samples each. The samples were allowed to dry completely under ambient conditions before they were subjected to laboratory- based tests. Results: The results of each test differed for two clay samples. Apart from values of solar radiation absorptivity and flaking concentration, the mean values of sorptivity, bulk density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were found to be greater for pink clay soil compared to yellow clay soil. Conclusion: Clay soils of different colors can differ in their other properties even if they exist under same conditions in a particular location. During the time of minimum temperature or the hottest time of the day, pink clay would record a lower temperature than yellow clay.
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