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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-73

Prevalence of hemolytic antibodies among blood donors in owo, Southwest Nigeria

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Federal Teaching University, Ido Ekiti, Nigeria
4 Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha; Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Nnamdi Azikwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
5 Department of Health Information Management, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
6 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
7 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Musa A Muhibi
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijas.ijas_3_19

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Background: One of the dangers of blood transfusion is the introduction of lethal substance like potent hemolysins into a blood unit's or product's recipient, in a heterologous transfusion practice. The prevalence of alpha (α-) and beta (β)-hemolysins among blood donors in Owo, was investigated. Materials and Methods: A volume of 4 ml of blood samples was collected from 300 consenting Groups A, B, and O donors who had been screened and accepted as donors. About 400 μl of donor serum was added into three test tubes labeled A, B, and O. To each tube, 200 μl of 5% red cell suspension of Groups A, B, and O were added, respectively. The standard O cell suspension was used as negative control. The tubes were then incubated at 22°C–25°C for 1 h, after which all tubes were centrifuged. They were then held before a source of light, and with minimal disturbances and the supernatant was examined macroscopically for hemolysis. Results: Of 300 donors recruited, frequencies of A, B, and O groups were 20%, 26.6%, and 53.3%, respectively. Among the donors, hemolysin was present in 32, translating to 10.67% prevalence. Among the 32 donors with hemolysins, the percentage obtained for the age groups 20–25, 26–30, 31–35, and 36–40 was 43.75%, 25.0%, 18.75%, and 12.5%, respectively. The distribution of α-hemolysin, β-hemolysin, and α+β-hemolysin was 14, 6, and 6 for male, whereas female recorded 2, 4, and 0, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that there is low prevalence of hemolysins among blood donors in Owo. Although hemolysin status is not a limiting factor in the donation of blood, it becomes one when it comes to blood units' and products' selection and transfusion into patients in the hospital. It is recommended that homologous transfusion is practiced as a priority, while hemolysin-positive units should never be considered for heterologous transfusion.

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