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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The impact of social media volume and addiction on medical student sleep quality and academic performance: A cross-sectional observational study
Saad Mohammed Al Suwayri
July-December 2016, 1(2):80-87
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_34_16  
Problem Statement: Social media use may be detrimental to sleep quality, self-esteem, and mental health and may affect academic performance in medical students. However, the effects of problematic social media use on sleep quality and academic performance in medical students are unknown. Approach: A total of 170 medical students in a Saudi Arabian medical school were studied. The relationships between social media use volume (duration of use per day) and addiction (measured using the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale) of seven platforms and (i) quality of sleep measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and (ii) academic performance according to the grade point average were examined. Caffeine intake was considered as a potential confounder, and data were analyzed using uni- and multi-variable logistic regression. Results: Poor quality sleep (72.9% and 63.5% during the week or at the weekend, respectively) and social media addiction (27.1% addicted to three or more platforms) were common. Individuals with high-volume WhatsApp (odds ratio [OR] 1.59 [1.20–2.10], P = 0.001) and Snapchat (OR 1.41 [1.10–1.81], P = 0.007) use were more likely to have very poor sleep quality at the weekend, the latter persisting in multivariable analysis. Students who were addicted to Snapchat (OR 2.53 [1.03–6.22], P = 0.044) or who were addicted to three or more social media platforms (OR 2.93 [1.19–7.23], P = 0.019) had an even greater risk of very poor weekend sleep quality. Social media addiction was not associated with academic performance. Conclusions/Recommendations: Educational programs on sleep and social media hygiene and changes to class start times to prevent weekend sleep debt should be considered.
  3,605 291 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
A comparative analysis of cybercrime and cyberlaws in Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates
Muhammad Bakhsh, Amjad Mahmood, Israr Iqbal Awan
January-June 2016, 1(1):9-15
The usage of web applications especially social media is increasing day by day. Moreover, the usage of information and communication technology applications both in public and private sector is the need of the hour since the usage of these applications has improved working efficiency. On the other side, excessive use of computer networks and its applications has augmented the issues of cybercrime, and there exist cyberlaws to deal these crimes but in developing countries, these laws are not matured. Furthermore, cyberlaws have been developed in almost every developed and developing country, but their implementation is weak, especially in Southeast Asia and the Middle East due to law unawareness in the masses. An attempt has been made in this paper to analyze the cybercrimes and cyberlaws, a part from the review of these laws in accordance with Pakistan and gulf countries.
  3,082 478 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Ergonomics and work-related musculoskeletal disorders in ophthalmic practice
Waleed Abdulaziz Alrashed
July-December 2016, 1(2):48-63
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_24_16  
Purpose: To increase the awareness of eye health care providers about Work related musculoskeletal disorders and proper ergonomics. Method: Literatures review of all aspect of work related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomics pertaining to heath care in general and particularly to eye care providers. Results: Work related Musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD's) among health care workers including Physicians, nurses, dental hygienist, and Custodial worker are well known. In the last two decades WRMSD's and related problems have being substantiated by different studies on the above mention groups, and in particular Ophthalmologists along with dentists and some surgical subspecialties (Laparoscope surgeons and Ear, Nose, and Throat surgeons). It was attributed to the specific nature of the job which requires prolonged awkward position and repetition. In these series of four articles will try to highlight the most important areas where health care providers especially the ophthalmologist should take care and aware of to prevent or at least reduce the WRMSD's. These areas involve: in the work and outside of work activities and include: (A) Clinic: The proper way of conducting slit lamp examination with or without the use of different lenses. How to perform direct and indirect ophthalmoscopes with the least stressful way to cervical and lumbar spine (will be covered in part 2 of this review). (B) Work station and office: How to set in proper way and how to select ergonomic and comfortable chair, tables, mouse, keyboard, screen and foot rest (will be covered in part 2 of this review). Also computer vision syndrome (will be discussed in part 4 of this review). (C) Operating room: Tips in how to adjust surgeon chair, microscope, and operating table to achieve the best ergonomic position. Also hints in the proper way of selecting and using surgical loupes (will be covered in part 2 of this review). (D) Outside the Hospital: Advises in the proper way of using portable visual display devices (smart phones and tablets etc…) along with hints on how to sit while driving and how to sleep with the least stress to the back and neck(will be covered in part 3 of this review). Conclusion: Adopting a healthy neutral posture and along with the comply of basic ergonomics principles in different areas of ophthalmic works early in the medical career (i.e. Residency) along with maintaining regular muscles stretches and exercise will reduce those unwanted Musculoskeletal squeals and hopefully leading to prolonged and productive healthy career life.
  2,616 285 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ambulance response time to cardiac emergencies in Riyadh
Khalid Alnemer, Khalid I Al-Qumaizi, Ahmed Alnemer, Ammar Alsayegh, Alwaleed Alqahtani, Yasser Alrefaie, Mohammed Alkhalifa, Ahmed Alhariri
January-June 2016, 1(1):33-38
Background: Ambulance response time (ART) plays a significant role in patient survival, especially in cardiac emergencies; qualifying as the crucial factor to measure the quality of prehospital emergency care. Thus, this retrospective, cross-sectional study aimed to measure the ART to public cardiac emergencies and to analyze its association with patient survival in Riyadh. Methods: Records of cardiac emergency medical services from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority for 1 year (January 1, 2013–December 31, 2013) in Riyadh were requisitioned. ART was calculated for 18 stations across Riyadh and assessed for confounding factors such as time (day of the week and time of the day), age, gender, and location of the incident. Results: The mean ART was approximately 13 min, with a trend toward prolongation during working hours on weekdays. ART and survival were unaffected by gender and location of the incident but was confounded by the age of the patient (P = 0.001). Conclusions/Recommendations: ART was much longer than the defined international standard of 8 min and comparable to other regions of the world. We recommend the use of motorcycles to transport paramedics to the emergency site, air ambulance, and dedicated ambulance lanes to reduce ART.
  2,440 249 -
Numerical study of natural convection and radiation exchange in an asymmetrically heated inclined channel
Shafqat Hussain
July-December 2016, 1(2):64-74
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_21_16  
Introduction: In this paper, numerical study is carried out to investigate natural convection and radiation heat transfer in an asymmetrical heated inclined air channel with open ends. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations are solved using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver ANSYS-FLUENT© in conjunction with the discrete ordinate radiation model. Simulations were run considering the channel with inclination angle to horizontal in the range 18° to 45° and a wall surface emissivity of 0.27–0.95. The channel length to channel space ratio was selected in the range 44–220. A uniform heat flux in the range 100–500 W/m2 was applied along the upper wall of the channel while the lower wall and side walls were assumed thermally insulated. Results: Temperature profiles along the upper and lower walls of the channel were obtained with variations in the channel length to space ratios, angles of inclination, radiation emissivity, and input Ohmic heat flux. The effect of various parameters on the maximum wall temperature and heat transfer was investigated. The numerical predictions are validated by comparison with the experimental data available in literature. Conclusion: The numerical results obtained are found in good agreement with the experimental measurements. From the numerical results, a correlation of local and average Nusselt number with modified channel Rayleigh number in the range of 101–105 is developed at asymmetric heat flux boundary conditions. Nu = 0.6851Ra” 0.2612
  2,226 186 -
CASE REPORT
Management of frozen shoulder with oil cupping massage: A case study
Md Hashmat Imam, Mohammad Ishtiyaque Alam, Aisha Perveen, Anirban Goswami, Qutubuddin Khan, Tasleem Ahmad
July-December 2017, 2(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_14_17  
Frozen shoulder is a common condition in which the articular shoulder capsule swells and stiffens, restricting its mobility. Key characteristics are gradual onset of shoulder stiffness, pain especially at night, and restriction in movement of the shoulder. It is generally diagnosed clinically or with the help of imaging technique. Conservative treatments include analgesics, oral steroids, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. If symptoms persist despite conservative measures, the surgical treatments were adopted. In modern medicine managing, such conditions are really a hard task. In Unani System of Medicine, there is specific treatment which can provide complete relief; for this, an Unani physician acquires different manipulative therapies such as regimental therapy (massage and cupping). In this paper, one such case is discussed in which patient was distressed by the pain and restricting movements of joints so that performing even small daily tasks are impossible for him/her. The treatment of such painful condition without aid of any analgesic with simple regimental therapy (massage and cupping) is really appreciable. The paper also gives the details of the method employed and material required of massage and cupping.
  2,123 172 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cyber security in civil aviation
Adrie Stander, Jacques Ophoff
January-June 2016, 1(1):23-26
Introduction: A number of recent claims in the media suggest it is possible to hack into avionics systems and control aircraft from a distance. While cyber security is not seen as a critical issue in aviation at the moment, it is likely to become much more important in the future through the accelerated adoption of information technologies in aviation. Objective: This study aims to determine if there are grounds for such claims. The aim of this paper is not to show how to compromise the information systems of an aircraft, but to indicate that this is not impossible and that vulnerabilities exist. Methodology: Since experimental work in this area is difficult, for obvious reasons, an extensive literature survey was conducted in order to find material related to the subject. Most of the material found is of a theoretical nature and even where possible vulnerabilities were identified it is difficult to show that it could be exploited in real life. Results: The study has found that steps are taken by aircraft manufacturers and controlling bodies to prevent the occurrence of such incidents. However, possible vulnerabilities exist and coordinated action is needed by the aviation industry as a whole, to determine and eradicate such vulnerabilities. Vulnerabilities are likely to increase with the move towards fly-by-wire aircraft.
  1,983 303 -
Do people intend to purchase using their smartphone apps? The effect of the privacy concerns among Malaysian buyers
Zakariya Belkhamza
January-June 2016, 1(1):16-22
Introduction: The rise of e commerce and m commerce has brought to intention the privacy concern among mobile buyers, and studies showed that it is an important factor of attitude and intention to buy products or services through smartphones. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the issue of privacy concerns on the purchasing intention among the Malaysian buyers. This was performed by investigating the relationship between the privacy concerns and the intention to purchase using smartphone apps. Methodology: This study gathered data from individual consumers aged between 20 and 40 years old since these consumers have the capability to acquire not just free apps but also paid apps along with better experience in using smartphones. Respondents must also have experienced purchasing and installing smartphone apps through app stores or repositories such as Google Play Store and Apple Store. The research uses nonprobability convenience sampling and snowball sampling as it has been widely used by researchers and academicians in the past with regard to investigating consumer behaviors on e commerce related issues Results: The paper provides significant insights on the issue of privacy concern in the usage of smartphone apps stores which can help the developers such as Google and Apple to improve their apps stores to provide better protection for the users' privacy and security in Malaysia.
  1,842 232 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Protecting the content through learning object metadata
Shaina Raza, Syed Raza Bashir
January-June 2016, 1(1):3-8
The web is full of numerous educational resources but they are not being properly used by the educators. There is so much pedagogical content available on the open web that is being ignored. A lot of learning initiatives stepped in to propose recommendations and guidelines to ensure interoperability of digital content. This has led to the development of learning objects repository (LOR) whose goals are interoperability, reuse, sharing, and retrieval of learning content. However, at the same time, the reproduction of learning material should not breach the copyright protection of the right holders as it is an act of cybercrime. In the lifecycle of LOR development, learning objects (LOs) are annotated using metadata descriptors to specify their syntax and semantics. This annotation process has led to the development of learning objects metadata (LOM) whose ultimate goals are to make searching and cataloging of LOs an easier task. LOM standard includes a number of sections, one of which is the “Rights” category which takes care of intellectual property rights and terms for the use of an LO. This paper presents the idea that how learning resources are annotated using LOM standard and how this annotation contributes to anti-cybercrime in formal education. More specifically, the paper tells that the “Rights” category and some related elements that work together for the provision of protection to the content holders. The paper also suggests that there should be some standardized mechanism for the automatic annotation of LOs so as to give copyright protection on permanent basis.
  1,608 201 -
EDITORIAL
Promoting research in applied sciences in Saudi Arabia
Khalid Bin Abdulrahman
January-June 2016, 1(1):1-2
  1,519 212 -
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Challenges in trauma resuscitation: A systematic review
Aref Ismael Arrowaili
July-December 2016, 1(2):43-47
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_1_17  
Introduction: Trauma resuscitations are complicated, high-risk, and time-sensitive actions that need the coordination of different specialists arriving from multiple areas in the hospital. This systematic review aimed to understand the main key challenges of trauma resuscitations using a broad search in various database. Methods: A systematic review of published articles between the year 2000 and 2016 were conducted using different electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Scopus to identify studies evaluating trauma resuscitations challenges. Different keywords were used in this study to recognize relevant articles. The titles of all articles were scanned in the first stage. Irrelevant articles were omitted and the abstracts of the rest articles were reviewed in the second stage. Finally, the full text of all articles which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed and a data extraction sheet was made to summarize all the articles. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results: Twenty five studies were reviewed including; RCT (3 studies), QRCT (5 studies), and descriptive study (17 studies). The results showed that there are four main trauma resuscitation challenges including pre-hospital challenges, error-related challenges, equipment and technical challenges, and finally general challenges. Conclusions: Trauma resuscitation is one of the most critical aspects of emergency care. It is necessary to promote resuscitation care and focus on patient outcomes in terms of mortality and more importantly, functional outcomes. Considering these main factors affecting trauma resuscitation will improve patients' outcomes and help those who are engaged in providing services.
  1,517 205 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cyber insecurity as a manifestation of new form of global urban vulnerability
Aliyu Salisu Barau
January-June 2016, 1(1):27-32
Introduction: As unprecedented urbanization continues to unfold; cities increasingly depend on the expanding internet of things (IoT). Cyber-attacks and insecurity are the emerging challenges that remain least investigated. Methods: To address this challenge, an online survey was conducted to gain insights from experts resident in 32 cities from Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The issues covered in the survey include types of devices for accessing the internet, time spent accessing the internet, extent of city dependency on IoT, feeling about cyber-attack threats, services most vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Results: The study concludes that vulnerability of urban population to cyber-attacks is inevitable at present. As more people and cities are connected to digital devices the more, they comprise their privacy and security. Unlike conventional urban vulnerability, the knowledge of managing cyber vulnerability is limited to a few individuals and corporations. Conclusion: To promote the culture of cyber-attack resilience, people need to understand the basic ideas behind malware (viruses, worms, and trojans) and cryptography.
  1,511 173 -
CASE REPORT
Clinical relevance of hypothyroidism screening in a child with an unexplained elevated serum creatinine
Mosleh Jabari, Hassan Alshehri
January-June 2016, 1(1):39-41
The association of hypothyroidism with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow is widely mentioned in the literature. However, elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) is not frequently described in the textbooks and literature as an indicator of hypothyroidism. Here, we present a 6-year-old girl who had deprived the energy for vigorous physical activity and reported fatigue to perform her daily activities with no other history of significant medical conditions with unremarkable physical examination. All her initial laboratory findings were within the normal range except an increased SCr level (75 μmol/L). The presence of nonspecific symptoms and unexplained elevation of SCr led to endocrinological investigations, which revealed hypothyroidism caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Replacement therapy with thyroxine improved her hypothyroid state and SCr level to normal after 6 weeks. Therefore, we recommend measurement of thyroid function in these patients to rule out the likelihood of hypothyroidism.
  1,234 161 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Technology integration in education
Shahnawaz Khan, Sultan Alamri
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_32_16  
The current generation of learners has been very much influenced by technology. Instructors have the power to engage learners in the learning activity using online resources, tools, or apps at learners' level of interest. However, there has been the issue of clearly defining integration of technology in education. Technology integration in education is a process, and it would be considered effective if learners are capable of choosing a tool which can help them to acquire, analyze, synthesize, and present the information in a timely and professional manner. Nevertheless, technology is a means or a tool to achieve an end goal, and technology is not the end in itself. This paper discusses the various tools and resources available for education and their advantages and disadvantages. How can we improve the technology integration? What are the options available? This paper discusses these issues and their possible solutions.
  1,201 137 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Overstable convection in a double-diffusive, salt-stratified system heated from below
Karim Alwani Choubani, Mohammed Abdulrahman Almeshaal
July-December 2016, 1(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_29_16  
Introduction: The salt-stratified solution destabilized by bottom heating is a double-diffusive system, which is characterized by conditions similar to those found in salt gradient solar ponds. Although many of its features are well understood, controversy still exists concerning the mechanisms responsible for the growth of the first mixed layer. This growth strongly influences overall system performance. The solar pond is a complex system that is coupled to ambient conditions and where several different inputs can destabilize the stratification. This complexity cannot be reflected in the idealized analytical description of the mixing mechanisms. In spite of these difficulties, the experimental description seemed necessary. Our objective is to make a laboratory scale flow visualization experiments using shadowgraph, to understand the occurrence of overstability and the layer motion in a simulated solar ponds. Laboratory experiments were made to investigate further the stability and occurrence of convective regimes, as a function of density and heat constraints. Methodology: In this paper, the overstable convection in a linearly salt-stratified system with a free surface and heated from below at constant temperature is studied. In the experimental studies, almost the same conditions and same stability parameter that we can find in a real salt-stratified solar pond was considered. Results: It is found that the oscillatory motion appeared in the bottom of the stratification seems to be the main mechanism responsible for the growth of the first mixed layer which strongly influences overall system performance. Conclusion: In this work, the onset and the development of the first mixed layer were studied for small stability parameter Λ. No investigation has been performed, to our knowledge, regarding the occurrence of overstability for small values of Λ.
  1,176 157 -
Factors associated with worse control of hypercholesterolemia in Saudi patients: Subanalysis of the Centralized Pan-middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia
Khalid Alnemer, Ibrahim Alhomood, Omalkhaire Alshaikh, Mohammed Arafah, Faisal Alanazi, Shorook Alherz, Wael Al Mahmeed, Abdullah Shehab, Omer Al Tamimi, Mahmoud Alawadhi, Ali T Al-Hinai
July-December 2016, 1(2):88-93
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_22_16  
Background: A subanalysis of the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) was done to establish the factors associated with worse control of hypercholesterolemia (HC) in Saudi Arabia. Methods and Results: CEPHEUS (NCT01031277) was a multicenter survey conducted in six Middle Eastern countries (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman) between November 2009 and July 2010. Male and female patients aged ≥18 years on lipid-lowering drugs for ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited. At the study visit, investigators completed a questionnaire (experience and perception of the management of HC), patients completed a questionnaire (awareness of HC, current treatment schedule and perception, compliance), and patient fasting serum samples were collected to measure lipid profile. For the purpose of this subanalysis, patients were categorized as Saudi or non-Saudi. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that diabetes, obesity, and high waist circumference are associated with worse control of HC in Saudi Arabia. The lipid profile showed worse control of all variables except high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Saudi patients on statins and fibrates for primary prevention were the highest low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievers. The positive predictors of achievement of LDL-C goals are age <40 years, absence of diabetes mellitus, nonsmoking status, compliance to medication, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <8%. Conclusion: This subanalysis establishes that diabetes, obesity, and high waist circumference age >40 years, smoking, HbA1c >8% are associated with worse control of HC in Saudi Arabia.
  1,185 97 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Characterization and treatment of wastewater from food processing industry: A review
Deborah Olubunmi Aderibigbe, Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa, Isah Adewale Bello
July-December 2017, 2(2):27-36
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_11_17  
The food processing industry contributes to economic growth and makes food more available. Wastewaters discharged from food industries need to be characterized often for their compliance to standards by regulatory authorities. In order to reduce environmental pollution, these industries use different treatment methods to treat their wastewater. Characterization of wastewater helps in developing various treatment methods among which are biological techniques, advanced oxidation process (AOP), and more recently adsorption. The biological treatment and AOP have undergone several investigations in the past few years and have advantages ranging from low operation cost to no waste product but not as efficient as adsorption which has low operation cost and high efficiency. This review focuses on works been done on characterization as well as the treatment of wastewater from food processing industry.
  1,123 148 -
CASE REPORT
Olanzapine induced neutropenia: Rechallenging with olanzapine combined with lithium
Asem A Alageel, Eisha M Gaffas
July-December 2016, 1(2):94-96
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_23_16  
Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication and a very effective treatment for schizophrenia. However, it is associated with third highest incidence of neutropenia among all antipsychotics, and this may limit its use. We present a case of a schizophrenic female who was successfully treated with olanzapine and lithium to enhance white blood cells after a history of neutropenia caused by olanzapine treatment. We briefly discuss the use of lithium in patients who were rechallenged with antipsychotic medications. This case study supports the use of lithium for olanzapine-induced neutropenia as a successful and safe strategy.
  1,138 114 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Storage and disposal practice of unused medication among the Saudi families: An endorsement for best practice
Jisha M Lucca, Dhfer Alshayban, Duaa Alsulaiman
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_21_18  
Improper storage and disposal of medications potentially pose a significant risk to both humans and animals. It also increases the economic burden to the society. The objective of this study was to investigate the storage and disposal habits of medications among the public of Saudi Arabia. The common place for storage for most of the medications was the fridge, followed by bedroom, kitchen, living room, and bathroom. An average of one to five unused medications were stored inside the house in Saudi. Antipyretic, pain medications and cough medications were the most common stored medications. Furthermore, we attempt to endorse the guidelines by the Food and Drug Administration for the best disposal practices.
  1,051 195 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Irritable bowel syndrome: The role of probiotics in the systematic and successful treatment of irritable bowel syndrome
Khalid I AlQumaizi, Amir Halim, Razique Anwer, Kamal Halim, Saleh AlOsaimi
January-June 2017, 2(1):8-11
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_2_18  
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complicated and time sensitive symptomatic condition with a collection of painful functional disorders of the digestive tract. It has no known established cause; hence it needs the coordination of different specialties to systematically review and establish the main key causes using a broad search in various database. Methods: A systematic IBS review of published articles past and present, were conducted using different electronic databases. The full text of all articles which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed and data were analyzed. The diagnostic value was based on the Manning criteria to observe the major symptoms in IBS. Results: We report an interesting IBS case in a 50-year-old female of Indian origin who was successfully treated with precision Biotic culture (Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 containing 1 billion bacteria per capsule) designed by scientists specifically for targeted action. The patient has remained asymptomatic for the last 24 months. Conclusion: Probiotics are basically nutritional supplements that contain good germs (bacteria) which normally live in the gut and seem to be very beneficial. It may help to ward off bad bacteria that cause IBS symptoms. While our result is promising, future trials are important.
  1,074 161 -
Longer breastfeeding duration among gifted students in Saudi Arabia
Fouzia A Al Hreashy, Ibrahim A Bin Ahmed, Sultana A Alhurishi
January-June 2017, 2(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_10_17  
Background: Investigating the factors related to the development of intelligence may improve our understanding of human development. The long-term benefit of breastfeeding on children's intelligence has attracted a great deal of research attention; therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the pattern of breastfeeding among gifted students at the Mawhiba Foundation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Mawhiba Foundation database of gifted students in Saudi Arabia. An electronic close-ended questionnaire was circulated to mothers of talented students in Grades 4 and 7 from different regions of Saudi Arabia. Sociodemographic data and the breastfeeding history of each talented student were collected. The main outcome measures were the categories of breastfeeding (breastfeeding, partial/mixed breastfeeding, and never breastfed) and duration of breastfeeding (6 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 2 years) and their association with demographic variables. Results: Of the 233 gifted students enrolled in the study, 214 (91%) were from populous areas in the Eastern, Makkah, and Riyadh regions of Saudi Arabia. The parents of most of these students were educated to the university level or higher (mothers, 192 [82.2%] and fathers, 158 [79.8%]), and almost half of the mothers were employed. The partial/mixed breastfeeding category was the most common observed in this population (171 [73%]). Almost half of the population (91 [41%]) had been breastfed for >1 year. The duration of breastfeeding and the mother's employment status had statistically significant relationships with the breastfeeding categories (P = 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: Partial/mixed breastfeeding is the most common category of breastfeeding, with a tendency toward prolonged breastfeeding among gifted students.
  1,036 130 -
CASE REPORTS
Linezolid resistance in Staphylocccus epidermidis: Another armour in the armamentarium of the so called commensal
Simit Kumar, Maitreyi Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek Sengupta, Manas Bandyopadhyay, Mitali Chatterjee
January-June 2017, 2(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_33_16  
Whereas previously only regarded as an innocuous commensal microorganism on the human skin, Staphylococcus epidermidis is nowadays seen as an important opportunistic pathogen. In particular, S. epidermidis represents the most common source of infections on indwelling medical devices such as peripheral or central intravenous catheters. Linezolid, the first approved oxazolidinone antibiotic, is a useful therapeutic option in the management of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. The previous administration of linezolid has been reported to be an independent predictor of linezolid resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Cases of patients developing infections with linezolid-resistant CoNS in the absence of prior exposure to linezolid have also been reported. The source of the resistant strain remains undetermined, but the clonal spread of CoNS has been reported to occur within hospitals, and therefore, the possibility of nosocomial transmission from patients colonized with linezolid-resistant CoNS following linezolid exposure needs to be entertained. Besides linezolid resistance, linezolid dependence has also been documented. All harboring linezolid-dependent linezolid-resistant S. epidermidis (LRSE) had prolonged linezolid treatment before yielding LRSE. This exposure also may have fostered the transition from resistance to dependence as suggested previously in vancomycin-dependent enterococci. Therefore, the high intrahospital linezolid consumption may favor not only LRSE selection but also their competitive survival. Should linezolid dependence prove common in highly LRSE isolates, it could explain their increasing clinical occurrence and the emergence of LRSE outbreaks. Our reports describe the first few cases of clinical failure of linezolid treatment due to LRSE in India.
  953 105 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Perceptions of smoking cessation counseling among dental students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
Abdulmalik A Alhussain, Rand F Alsaif, Jawaher M Alahmari, Ali A Aleheideb
January-June 2019, 4(1):21-29
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_20_18  
Context: The dental clinic is presumed to be a suitable and practical place for smoking cessation counseling. Clinical dental students have an opportunity to play a crucial role in educating their patients about the impact of smoking and promote their oral and general health. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceptions of clinical dental students toward smoking cessation counseling and the barriers to promote it. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in July 2017 among clinical dental students and interns of five dental schools. Subjects and Methods: We used a questionnaire derived from a similar study. The online questionnaires were distributed through social media. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was achieved using SPSS 24.0 Mac version (Release 24.0, IBM, USA) through Chi-square test. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 291 individuals participated in the study. Most of the respondents were nonsmokers (79.4%). In comparison between junior and senior dental students with regard to their perceptions of smoking cessation counseling, it was found that there was no significant difference between the two groups. Most of the respondents were interested in becoming trained on how to assist patients to quit (72.9%). Furthermore, the majority of participants inquired about their patients' smoking status (87.6%). The most frequently cited barrier was lack of training to help patients quit smoking (67%). Conclusions: This study identified the lack of appropriate training and insufficient knowledge toward tobacco use cessation counseling.
  900 102 -
Ultra-wideband transceiver model for wireless body area network applications
Mohanad Abdulhamid, Onyango Ben Sewe
January-June 2019, 4(1):7-15
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_16_18  
The major constraints in the design of wireless body area network (WBAN) can be attributed to the battery autonomy, need for high data rate services, and low interference from the devices operating within the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. To meet the demand for high data rate services and low power spectral density to avoid ISM band interference, an ultra-wideband (UWB) system-based technology has been proposed. This study focuses on the design and demonstration of an UWB modem to be used in the WBAN applications and the evaluation of its performance in near-real-world scenarios affected by additive white Gaussian noise interference. The modem is tested with different values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Results show that the performance of the modem degrades as the value of SNR decreases.
  855 125 -
CASE REPORTS
Periodontitis in late childhood: Associated with immune-mediated enteropathy
Kanika Gupta Verma, Suruchi Juneja, Sanjeev Kumar Salaria, Manish Sukhija
January-June 2017, 2(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_3_18  
Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease with immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten and is associated with poor absorption and digestion, affecting both developing dentition and oral mucosa. The article presents a clinical case showing the impact on the general and oral health of a 10-year-old patient. The case presented as a special situation in clinical pediatric practice that must be taken into account more often.
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