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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2018
Volume 3 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 33-74

Online since Wednesday, December 12, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Principles and practice of Faşd (venesection) in Unani/Greco-Arabian medicine Highly accessed article p. 33
Sadia Nikhat, Mohd Fazil
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_13_18  
Unani or Yunani medicine, also referred to as Greco-Arabian medicine is a complementary system of medicine which originated in ancient Greece. According to Unani medicine, there are six essential factors which are responsible for the maintenance of health and any disruption in them may lead to disease. Ilāj bit Tadbīr (regimental therapy) encompasses regimes that attempt to correct this disruption and help the body to restore itself. Faşd (venesection) is a part of Ilāj bit Tadbīr which involves blood-letting by placing an incision in specified veins. It is prescribed as a minor excretory procedure which has both preventive and therapeutic benefits. Faşd has manifold benefits including istifrāgh (excretion) of wastes, removal of imtila (plethora), and reduction of viscosity of blood. Hence, if carried out according to guidelines, it serves as an effective treatment modality in many local and systemic disorders. The present review aims to present the principles and guidelines of faşd in light of traditional Greco-Arabian medicine.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Semi-supervised sentiment analysis of consumer reviews p. 41
Sarah Omar Alhumoud
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_8_18  
Background: Consumer transactions and individual's online information exchange streams hold within them an enormous amount of data that is large in volume, velocity of generation, and variety. Motivation: Extracting information and trends from these data is a valuable asset in getting a better understanding of consumer's activities and preferences to guide future decision-making. Consequently, analyzing customer reviews through sentiment analysis classification is increasingly growing in interest. However, the resources and lexicons available to aid the classification learning are still scarce. Aim: The present research presents a domain-specific lexicon, enhancing the analysis intelligence of customer reviews on services. The Lexicon for Sentiment Analysis for Reviews (LSAR) is applied using semi-supervised SVM classification. Results: Results were encouraging, showing that the classifier based on the proposed lexicon, LSAR achieved better accuracy 0.94 compared to 0.72 for the AFINN-based classifier.
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Accessibility to primary health care and emergency department visits p. 48
Abdulrhman Mohammed Al-Arifi, Meshal Khunfur Al-Rashdi
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_12_18  
Background: It is widely acknowledged in many countries that the delivery of accessible primary health care (PHC) is one of the most important national priorities. On the other hand, frequent complaints relating to longer waits to access hospital care and overutilization of emergency services are still common. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine patients' accessibility to PHC nonurgent emergency department (ED) and its influence factors to improve primary care quality and reduce ED crowding. Subjects and Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study. Convenience sample of ED patients was chosen from the Prince Sultan Military Medical City hospital ED in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An interview questionnaire was designed to collect the data. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 24. Results: A total of 89 nonurgent ED patients participated in this study and their mean age was 36.45 (standard deviation = 14.8). Most of the participants (70.8%) were male and half of them (51.7%) had “secondary or diploma” degree. Most of the participants (85.4%) mentioned that they never visited PHCs. Almost half of the participants (51.7%) mentioned that they visited ED only one time in the last 12 months. About fifth (20.2%) of the patients mentioned that they did not access to PHC due to long waiting in the doctor's office. Patients' education status and duration of presenting complaint were significantly associated with their trying to go to PHC and visiting ED in the last year. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is necessary to develop strategies to implement policies aimed at reducing nonurgent ER use as well as make health-care services more available to the population.
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Monitoring of home patient over general packet radio service network p. 54
Muaayed Farhan, Mohanad Abdulhamid, Banja Akoth
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_17_18  
Statement of Problem: Patient monitoring from a hospital has its own limitations. The main one is that there is a shortage in number of intensive care unit(ICU) beds in hospitals and a handful of people to be monitored. Methodology of Solution: This paper tries to solve the problem of shortage in number of ICU beds by using a home patient monitoring device dependent on general packet radio service (GPRS). The patient monitoring device actualizes the utilization of the GPRS system to send essential signs information to a hospital server. This empowers a patient to be checked in the solace of his or her home. The information is sent utilizing the packet transmission strategy where the signal is separated into packets of information for transmission. Results: The simulation results demonstrate the impact of the transmission channel on the transmitted signal by presenting an error rate.
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Histological and biochemical changes induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in the heart and kidneys of adult wistar rats p. 59
Ferdinand Uwaifo, Ejatuluchukwu Obi, Anthony Ngokere, Matthew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Bankole Henry Oladeinde, Akpotor Mudiaga
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_15_18  
Study Background: Moringa oleifera, (miracle tree), has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there have been scanty information on its sub-acute effect on the kidneys. Aims: This work was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the heart and kidneys of adult Wistar rats. Settings and Design: Twenty-eight adult healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 per group and fed with pellets and water ad libitum. Group A served as the control, Group B were fed with 500 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Moringa leaf, Group C with 1000 mg/kg while Group D were fed with 1500 mg/kg body weight. Methods and Material: Doses were administered once daily using oral gavage for 28 days. Before the time of sacrificing the animals, blood samples were collected into plain test tubes and the animals anesthetized before sacrifice. Necropsy was performed and the tissues (heart and kidney) processed and stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining techniques. Serum electrolyte (sodium and potassium), urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were analyzed for. Results: There were significant increases in urea and potassium in the 1000 mg/kg (41.26 ± 16.89 and 10.52 ± 1.48) and 1500 mg/kg (44.23 ± 17.49 and 13.82 ± 1.57) treated animals when compared with the control (21.47 ± 16.33 and 4.54 ± 1.09). Histo-architecture of the kidneys showed glomerula atrophy in the 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg treated rats which is indicative of intrinsic renal damage. There were no noticeable structural damage on the heart. Conclusions: The result showed that M. oleifera may be toxic to the kidneys at concentrations higher than 1000 mg/kg.
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Plasma complement 4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 4 in patients co-infected with Plasmodium confection and filarial worm p. 63
Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Kehinde Oluwanifemi Ojo, Mufutau M Azeez, Temitayo Afolabi
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_11_18  
Study Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine which worsen disease, interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that enhance healing process while complement 4 mediates inflammation. Plasmodiasis and lymphatic filariasis can generate immune responses involving cytokines and complements. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine plasma level of TNF-α, complement 4 (C4), and IL-4 in Plasmodium co-infection with filariasis. Materials and Methods: The test individuals recruited for this study include microfilaria monoinfected patients (30), Plasmodium monoinfected patients (50), and microfilaria and Plasmodium coinfected patients (30) aged 32–73 years. Microfilaria and Plasmodium noninfected individuals (50) were studied as control. All individuals were seronegative to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HBsAg. TNF-α, IL-4, C4, HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were determined in each of the patients by immunochemical technique using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Microfilaria was identify in each of the subjects by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stained, thin, and thick blood film smears, using the “gold standard” known as finger prick test while identification of Plasmodium was carried out using thick and thin film technique using Giemsa and Leishman staining. Results: The result obtained showed a significant increase in the plasma value of TNF-α, IL-4 and a significant decrease in plasma value of C4 in patients who were co-infected with both Plasmodium and microfilaria compared with Plasmodium monoinfected, microfilaria monoinfected patients, and also compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work has been used to reveal a significant increase in plasma value of TNF-α, IL-4, and significant decrease in plasma value of C4 in microfilaria and Plasmodium coinfection. Routine laboratory evaluation of these parameters in microfilaria and Plasmodium coinfection will provide useful direction for the management of the disease condition.
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CASE SERIES Top

Androgen insensitivity syndrome: An experience of genetic analysis of a family from a tertiary center – Saudi Arabia p. 68
Abdullah Y Al-Faifi, Malak I Al Anazi1, Mosleh Jabari, Abdullah Al-Faris, Ibrahim Al Sahabi, Mohammed Al-sayed, Hassan Al-Shehri
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_14_18  
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a disorder of sex development caused by mutations in the gene encoding the androgen receptor (AR). It is characterized by 46 XY karyotype, bilateral testes, absent mullerian duct structure, and female appearing external genitalia. This is a hospital-based case series study which comprised three cases who were seen at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Case notes, imaging, and laboratory investigations indicated AIS among the three cases, with no variable degrees of insensitivity ranging. All three cases were within the same family, and there were two cases who were carriers for the mutation. One of these cases had an affected daughter (case #3) mentioned above. The present study identified a certain mutation (p.Arg775Cys) in a Saudi family. The mutation provides insights into the molecular mechanism underlying complete AIS and expands on a number of mutational hot spots in the international AR mutation database, especially in our community. The extent of androgen insensitivity in 46 XY individuals is not rare in a community with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. A multidisciplinary team approach is essential for successful management. Furthermore, it will be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.
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BOOK REVIEW Top

The Canon of Medicine p. 73
Md Hashmat Imam
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_18_18  
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