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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 4 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-29

Online since Wednesday, February 20, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Storage and disposal practice of unused medication among the Saudi families: An endorsement for best practice p. 1
Jisha M Lucca, Dhfer Alshayban, Duaa Alsulaiman
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_21_18  
Improper storage and disposal of medications potentially pose a significant risk to both humans and animals. It also increases the economic burden to the society. The objective of this study was to investigate the storage and disposal habits of medications among the public of Saudi Arabia. The common place for storage for most of the medications was the fridge, followed by bedroom, kitchen, living room, and bathroom. An average of one to five unused medications were stored inside the house in Saudi. Antipyretic, pain medications and cough medications were the most common stored medications. Furthermore, we attempt to endorse the guidelines by the Food and Drug Administration for the best disposal practices.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Ultra-wideband transceiver model for wireless body area network applications p. 7
Mohanad Abdulhamid, Onyango Ben Sewe
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_16_18  
The major constraints in the design of wireless body area network (WBAN) can be attributed to the battery autonomy, need for high data rate services, and low interference from the devices operating within the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. To meet the demand for high data rate services and low power spectral density to avoid ISM band interference, an ultra-wideband (UWB) system-based technology has been proposed. This study focuses on the design and demonstration of an UWB modem to be used in the WBAN applications and the evaluation of its performance in near-real-world scenarios affected by additive white Gaussian noise interference. The modem is tested with different values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Results show that the performance of the modem degrades as the value of SNR decreases.
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Immunochemical evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome subjects in relationship with the CD4+ count p. 16
Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Oladayo Abayomi Kilo
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_19_18  
Study Background: Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients could accelerate the progression of HIV infection, which may result into immunosuppression due to immune responses involving cytokines and CD4 + cells. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine the immunochemical evidence of T. cruzi and T. gondii parasitic infections in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome subjects in relationship with the CD4+ count. Materials and Methods: Fifty HIV-positive subjects (25 females and 25 males) aged 14–57 years were recruited as test subjects while 100 HIV-seronegative age-matched individuals were recruited as control. T. cruzi and T. gondii parasitic infections were determined in the subjects by ELISA, while CD4+ cells enumeration was carried out in the subjects by cyflowmetry, and HIV test was carried out by immunochromatography and western blotting. Results: The results obtained showed a significantly lower CD4+ cells in T. cruzi- and T. gondii-infected HIV-positive patients than the HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects who were not infected with any of the parasites (<0.05). There was also a significantly lower CD4+ cells in T. gondii-infected HIV-positive patients than T. cruzi-infected HIV-positive patients (<0.05). The frequency of T. cruzi in HIV-positive patients was 18% (9) which was more prevalent in male patients (12%[6] vs. 6% [3]) while that of T. gondii-infected HIV-positive patients was 14% (7), was more prevalent in females than males (10%[5] vs. 4% [2]). T. cruzi parasitic infection was found to be more prevalent compared to T. gondii infection among HIV-positive patients (18%[9] vs. 14% [7]). Conclusion: There parasitic infection caused a significant decrease in CD4+ cells in HIV subjects. There was also a gender difference in the parasitic infection of T. cruzi and T. gondii while the frequency of T. cruzi was 18% (9) and T. gondii was 14% (7).
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Perceptions of smoking cessation counseling among dental students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study p. 21
Abdulmalik A Alhussain, Rand F Alsaif, Jawaher M Alahmari, Ali A Aleheideb
DOI:10.4103/ijas.ijas_20_18  
Context: The dental clinic is presumed to be a suitable and practical place for smoking cessation counseling. Clinical dental students have an opportunity to play a crucial role in educating their patients about the impact of smoking and promote their oral and general health. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceptions of clinical dental students toward smoking cessation counseling and the barriers to promote it. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in July 2017 among clinical dental students and interns of five dental schools. Subjects and Methods: We used a questionnaire derived from a similar study. The online questionnaires were distributed through social media. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was achieved using SPSS 24.0 Mac version (Release 24.0, IBM, USA) through Chi-square test. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 291 individuals participated in the study. Most of the respondents were nonsmokers (79.4%). In comparison between junior and senior dental students with regard to their perceptions of smoking cessation counseling, it was found that there was no significant difference between the two groups. Most of the respondents were interested in becoming trained on how to assist patients to quit (72.9%). Furthermore, the majority of participants inquired about their patients' smoking status (87.6%). The most frequently cited barrier was lack of training to help patients quit smoking (67%). Conclusions: This study identified the lack of appropriate training and insufficient knowledge toward tobacco use cessation counseling.
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