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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 62-68

Compliance level of textual therapeutic usage of kakoli-containing formulations with ethnomedicinal survey and modern system of medicine


1 Department of Herbal Drug Technology, University Centre of Excellence in Research, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India
2 Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, Almora, Uttarakhand, India
3 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Meerut, Utter Pradesh, India
4 Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Government Medical College, Faridkot, Punjab, India

Date of Submission23-Jan-2019
Date of Acceptance15-Mar-2019
Date of Web Publication30-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Parveen Bansal
University Centre of Excellence in Research, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijas.ijas_1_19

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  Abstract 


Study Background: Roscoea purpurea (Kakoli) is a wonder plant used by Saints/Rishies since ages, however, entered the list of plants facing extinction due to enumerable reasons. Ancient texts claim very potent uses of kakoli-containing formulations, but the information is available in regional languages and hence the real usages of the plant are not well understood by scientific fraternity. Hence, it becomes important to know the real status of the mentioned therapeutic potentials as well as practiced potentials by tradomedical practitioners. Hence, the major objective of the work was to conduct the ethnomedicinal survey for intended formulations and compares it with therapeutic usage mentioned in text/modern system of medicine.
Materials and Methods: A field survey was conducted in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttrakhand, and Uttar Pradesh followed by discussion with 18 shopkeepers, 24 local medical practitioners, and 4 traditional healers. The information regarding usage of these formulations were recorded and compared.
Results: Results showed that usage of formulations containing kakoli was highest in Himachal Pardesh and Uttrakhand. Only few clinical studies have been done by scientists on these formulations.
Conclusion: The efficacy of the remedies alluded by the respondents claimed to be exact as per the Ayurvedic textual literature. This survey provides a template for scientists for further screening and research on these formulations useful in plethora of disorders.

Keywords: Ayurveda, ethnomedicinal survey, formulations, kakoli, Roscoea purpurea


How to cite this article:
Kaur G, Gupta V, Kumar S, Singhal R G, Maithani M, Bansal P. Compliance level of textual therapeutic usage of kakoli-containing formulations with ethnomedicinal survey and modern system of medicine. Imam J Appl Sci 2019;4:62-8

How to cite this URL:
Kaur G, Gupta V, Kumar S, Singhal R G, Maithani M, Bansal P. Compliance level of textual therapeutic usage of kakoli-containing formulations with ethnomedicinal survey and modern system of medicine. Imam J Appl Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Aug 24];4:62-8. Available from: http://www.e-ijas.org/text.asp?2019/4/2/62/263658




  Introduction Top


India from times immemorial has been blessed by nature with the wealth of fascinating and alluring medicinal plants. In the oldest repositories of human knowledge, plants and plant products have been positively recognized as supportive agents in the treatment of various diseases.[1] Ayurveda was not in theoretical form but was passed on from generation to generation by teacher in the practical form till the Ayurveda was compiled and found its rightful place at the end of the fourth Veda, the Atharvaveda. Due to a different attitude of rulers at different times and due to the arrival of other therapies including Unani and Tibbi, a good deal of Ayurvedic literature was lost which in turn led to a decline in the glory of Indian medicine. In their place, a number of worthless drugs of doubtful origin came in which did not have the curative properties and thus the good name of the Indian system of medicine got overshadowed.[2] The same happened with Ashtwarga group of medicines too. “Ashtawarga” constituting a group of eight drugs (Jivaka, Rishbhaka, Meda, Mahameda, Kakoli, Kseerkakoli, Riddhi, and Vriddhi) is an important component of a number of Ayurvedic preparations including Chyawanprash.[3]Chyawanprash is named after sage Chyawan, who first prepared the formulation to impart youth, charm, vigor, and longevity.[4],[5] According to various ancient texts, the sage after losing his eyesight and vigor made efforts to obtain the tonic from the Ashvins (the physicians of the gods as mentioned in ancient texts), to satisfy an overcurious and sexually demanding princess. Rishi Chyawan restored his body to its original youthful glow and functionality in no time and they lived happily ever after.[6] Similarly, many curative and rejuvenating properties have been attributed to Ashtawarga group of plants, but all of them have not been identified correctly so far. Extreme vague description about these are available in the Ayurvedic literature, and so far, it has not been possible to ascertain the correct botanical species representing these eight drugs, with the result that all sorts of plants are indiscriminately used as “Ashtawarga.”

Kakoli is an important component of the Ashtawarga group locally renowned as Kakoli, Red gukhra, Dhawanksholika, Karnika, Ksheera, Vayasoli, Vaysasha, etc., and is native of Nepal. Roscoea purpurea synonymously known as Roscoea procera (Wall.) is a perennial herb belonging to family Zingiberaceae.[7] Tubers of Roscoea are tasty, nutritious tonic, aphrodisiac, nourish body, and increase kapha. It increases fat in the body, heals bone fracture and cures vata, pitta, and rakta doshas, dehydration, burning sensation and rheumatism in the body, and fever and diabetic condition. It also restores health, strengthens immunity system and rectifies defects in anabolism or body growth processes, and work as antioxidant in the body.[8] Due to the lack of authentic species from natural habitats, systemized studies/clinical studies has not been carried out on this group of plants. A very few studies related to its therapeutic potentials have been carried out, however, the number of studies does not commensurate with the therapeutic importance of Kakoli mentioned in ancient literature. Moreover, the information available is highly scattered and not ready to be used by scientist groups working on such important plants. This plant is being used in a number of formulations of high therapeutic value as mentioned in ancient texts, however, a very limited data with scientific evidence are available in modern literature as well as on internet sources. Ancient texts claim very potent uses of these formulations, but as the information is available in regional languages or in Sanskrit, so the real uses of the plant are not well understood by scientific fraternity. Hence, it becomes important to know the real status of the mentioned therapeutic potentials as well as practiced potentials by tradomedical practitioners (TMPs) and put it in front of scientists so as to give a thrust to clinical studies on therapeutic effects as well as pharmacological actions of the plant.


  Materials and Methods Top


There are number of TMPs all over the country, particularly in the rural and remote areas. A number of formulation containing kakoli are used in the tribal and traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Hence, a folklore survey was taken up to identify the medicinal importance of kakoli-containing formulations available mainly in four states of Northern India. A field survey was conducted in and around district headquarters and discussion with the 18 shopkeepers, 24 local medical practitioners, and 4 traditional healers and information regarding these formulations was recorded. The information procured was validated by comparing the information given by at least five TMPs. The medicinal uses of these formulations were recorded from the folklore claims and the standard literature of the Indian systems of medicine. An effort has been made to highlight the traditional use of these formulations so as to enable the scientists to explore these formulations for further research studies.


  Results and Discussion Top


The folklore survey was done in various districts in Himachal Pradesh (Shimla, Dharamshala, Kangra, Mandi, and Kullu and Manali), Punjab (Sangrur, Barnala, Ludhiana, Bhatinda, Patiala, Ferozepur, and Faridkot), Uttrakhand (Dehradun, Haridwar, Pauri Garhwal, and Rudraprayag), and in Uttar Pradesh (Agra, Meerut, Moradabad, and Mathura). It was observed that usage of 17 formulations containing kakoli were maximum in Himachal Pradesh and Uttrakhand and less in Punjab. The demographic characteristic of respondents (n = 46) is listed in [Table 1]. The excerpts of Ayurvedic formulations containing kakoli as one of the ingredient are listed in [Table 2]. The compliance level of therapeutic uses of kakoli-containing formulations as per the ancient literature with TMPs and preclinical/clinical trials/case studies as per the modern system of medicine are enumerated as in [Table 3] and [Figure 1]. These formulations have been indicated in a plethora of reproductive disorders, loss of digestion, insanity, depression, depletion of body tissue, emaciation, phthisis, cures gout arthritis pervading the whole body, heart disease, facial paralysis, diseases of the head/neck, and epilepsy. Majority of these kakoli-containing Ayurvedic formulations are used in treatment of reproductive disorders. Of the 17 formulations selected in the study, 12 Ayurvedic formulations (70.58%) are used in treatment of male and female reproductive disorders as per the Ayurvedic texts and guided by TMPs, but only 5 formulations (29.41%) were proven to be used in reproductive disorders as per the modern system of medicine [Table 4]. Hence, there is a need of hour to explore these very important formulations for further trials.
Table 1: Demographic characteristic of tradomedicinal practitioners/shopkeepers/traditional healers (n=46)

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Table 2: Excerpts of ayurvedic formulations containing kakoli

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Table 3: Compliance level of therapeutic uses of kakoli-containing formulations as per the ancient literature with tradomedical practitioners and preclinical/clinical trials/case studies as per the modern system of medicine

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Figure 1:Percentage Compliance level of therapeutic uses of Kakoli containing Ayurvedic formulations

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Table 4: Status of Ayurvedic formulations used in treatment of male and female reproductive disorders

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  Conclusion Top


The analysis of literature reveals that R. purpurea is a wonder plant used by Saints/Rishies since ages, however, due to a number of reasons, plant has been ignored for its therapeutic uses. This survey clearly indicates that there is a need of deciphering the textual references given in regional languages and use them for new drug development process. As clearly indicated in textual as well as in survey, most of the kakoli-containing formulations have been recommended for reproductive disorders in men and women. However, there is a lack of such patent formulations as well as systemized clinical trials that could prove to be useful in highlighting the real therapeutic potentials of kakoli-containing formulations. Hence, this survey provides a template for scientists for further screening and research on these formulations that are useful in plethora of disorders.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the TMPs for sharing their precious traditional knowledge.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



[29]



 
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