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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 63-67

Plasma complement 4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 4 in patients co-infected with Plasmodium confection and filarial worm


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijas.ijas_11_18

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Study Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine which worsen disease, interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that enhance healing process while complement 4 mediates inflammation. Plasmodiasis and lymphatic filariasis can generate immune responses involving cytokines and complements. Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine plasma level of TNF-α, complement 4 (C4), and IL-4 in Plasmodium co-infection with filariasis. Materials and Methods: The test individuals recruited for this study include microfilaria monoinfected patients (30), Plasmodium monoinfected patients (50), and microfilaria and Plasmodium coinfected patients (30) aged 32–73 years. Microfilaria and Plasmodium noninfected individuals (50) were studied as control. All individuals were seronegative to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HBsAg. TNF-α, IL-4, C4, HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were determined in each of the patients by immunochemical technique using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Microfilaria was identify in each of the subjects by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stained, thin, and thick blood film smears, using the “gold standard” known as finger prick test while identification of Plasmodium was carried out using thick and thin film technique using Giemsa and Leishman staining. Results: The result obtained showed a significant increase in the plasma value of TNF-α, IL-4 and a significant decrease in plasma value of C4 in patients who were co-infected with both Plasmodium and microfilaria compared with Plasmodium monoinfected, microfilaria monoinfected patients, and also compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work has been used to reveal a significant increase in plasma value of TNF-α, IL-4, and significant decrease in plasma value of C4 in microfilaria and Plasmodium coinfection. Routine laboratory evaluation of these parameters in microfilaria and Plasmodium coinfection will provide useful direction for the management of the disease condition.


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