Users Online: 382
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 59-62

Histological and biochemical changes induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in the heart and kidneys of adult wistar rats


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State; Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
3 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
4 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
5 Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria

Date of Submission12-Nov-2018
Date of Acceptance13-Nov-2018
Date of Web Publication12-Dec-2018

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Ferdinand Uwaifo
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijas.ijas_15_18

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Study Background: Moringa oleifera, (miracle tree), has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there have been scanty information on its sub-acute effect on the kidneys.
Aims: This work was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the heart and kidneys of adult Wistar rats.
Settings and Design: Twenty-eight adult healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 per group and fed with pellets and water ad libitum. Group A served as the control, Group B were fed with 500 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Moringa leaf, Group C with 1000 mg/kg while Group D were fed with 1500 mg/kg body weight.
Methods and Material: Doses were administered once daily using oral gavage for 28 days. Before the time of sacrificing the animals, blood samples were collected into plain test tubes and the animals anesthetized before sacrifice. Necropsy was performed and the tissues (heart and kidney) processed and stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining techniques. Serum electrolyte (sodium and potassium), urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were analyzed for.
Results: There were significant increases in urea and potassium in the 1000 mg/kg (41.26 ± 16.89 and 10.52 ± 1.48) and 1500 mg/kg (44.23 ± 17.49 and 13.82 ± 1.57) treated animals when compared with the control (21.47 ± 16.33 and 4.54 ± 1.09). Histo-architecture of the kidneys showed glomerula atrophy in the 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg treated rats which is indicative of intrinsic renal damage. There were no noticeable structural damage on the heart.
Conclusions: The result showed that M. oleifera may be toxic to the kidneys at concentrations higher than 1000 mg/kg.

Keywords: Electrolytes, kidneys, Moringa oleifera, oxidative stress, rats


How to cite this article:
Uwaifo F, Obi E, Ngokere A, Olaniyan MF, Oladeinde BH, Mudiaga A. Histological and biochemical changes induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in the heart and kidneys of adult wistar rats. Imam J Appl Sci 2018;3:59-62

How to cite this URL:
Uwaifo F, Obi E, Ngokere A, Olaniyan MF, Oladeinde BH, Mudiaga A. Histological and biochemical changes induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in the heart and kidneys of adult wistar rats. Imam J Appl Sci [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Mar 22];3:59-62. Available from: http://www.e-ijas.org/text.asp?2018/3/2/59/247319




  Introduction Top


Plants have played an important role in maintaining health and quality of human life for thousands of years and have served humans well as valuable components of medicines, seasonings, beverages, cosmetics, and dyes.[1] Herbal medicine is based on the premise that plants contain natural substances that can promote health and alleviate illness.[2]Moringa oleifera is one of such plant, having a multipurpose use, either as a vegetable, spice, a source of cooking, cosmetic oil, or as a medicinal plant.[3]M. oleifera grows across Nigeria and is known by local names that vary between ethnic groups.[4] It is called Zogale, Zogale gandi and Bagaruwar makka (Hausa), Ewe igbale and Idagbo monoye (Yoruba), Ikwa oyibo (Igbo), and Kabi (Kilba).[5] It is also known as Haakoobisii (Mumuye), Jeghlegede (Tiv), Gegeredi (Idoma), and Gelgedi (Igala).[6]

This study was carried out to investigate the structural and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the kidneys and heart of rats.


  Materials and Methods Top


This work was done using 28 adult healthy Wistar rats which were between 11 and 12 weeks of age having a weight range between 210 and 240g. The rats were divided into four groups of 7 rats in each group and were allowed to acclimatize for 2 weeks and fed with standard Pfizer-branded rodent feed obtained from Livestock Feed, Nigeria Ltd. ad libitum, and water was available to the rats in water bottles of the downspout type (drinking nozzle facing downward). The acute toxicity test of the ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera showed that no deaths were recorded in rats up to 4500 mg/kg body weight of the extracts The rats were also fed with Moringa extract at different concentrations Group A: Served as the control, Group B: 500 mg/kg, Group C: 1000 mg/kg, and Group D: 1500 mg/kg (which represented one third of the LD50), Group A were only fed with their normal food and water The doses were administered once daily using oral gavage for 28 days at the end of the animals were anesthetized with chloroform, while blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture into plain bottles using 21 gauge needles mounted on a 5 ml syringe. Necropsy was done, and the heart and kidney tissues were excised and fixed in 10% formal saline for histological evaluation.


  Result and Discussion Top


The values from the findings presented in [Table 1] showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in a dose-dependent fashion detected at 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of the treated rats. However, the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner at 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of the treated rats. There was, however, no significant (P > 0.05) difference in SOD, GSH, CAT activities and MDA level of the eviscerated heart when compared with the control [Table 2].
Table 1: Effect of extract on the kidneys' oxidative status of treated animals

Click here to view
Table 2: Effect of extract on the heart oxidative status of treated animals

Click here to view


The values from the findings presented in [Table 3] showed statistical significant increases in potassium (10.52 ± 1.48, P = 0.027 and 13.82 ± 1.57, P = 0.019) in the 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg treated rats, respectively, when compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in Urea (41.26 ± 16.89, P = 0.031 and 44.23 ± 17.49, P = 0.034) in the 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg treated rats, respectively when compared with the control. These findings are in agreement with Ugwu (2013)[7] who recorded an increase in serum Urea and potassium when increased doses of M. oleifera diet were fed on rats.
Table 3: Effect of extract on renal and cardiac biochemical parameters

Click here to view


The examined kidney tissues [Figure 1] showed Vacuolation and glomerular degeneration, this findings are in keeping with[8] but contradict a previous study.[9],[10]
Figure 1: Photomicrograph of 1500 mg/kg treated kidney tissue (H and E, × 100) showing glomerular atrophy (black arrows)

Click here to view


Histological findings on the heart tissues [Figure 2] showed no distinct cytoarchitectural distortion, this finding is not in agreement with Prince et al.,[11] who suggested that there is reduced necrosis to a greater extent of the myocytes due to the anti-cardiotoxic action of the phenolic fraction of Moringa, and it has also demonstrated that M. oleifera leaf is cardioprotective to tissues against oxidative stress in rabbits although at a much lower dose.[12],[13] This study agrees with Bharali et al.,[14] who reported that Moringa leaf extract prevents histopathological damage and ultra-structure perturbation caused due to isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.
Figure 2: Photomicrograph of 1500 mg/kg treated heart tissue (H and E, ×100) showing normal cytoarchitecture with intact nuclei (black arrows)

Click here to view


Histological findings

The histological findings of the kidneys show the photomicrograph of a kidney tissue control [Figure 3] with normal cytoarchitecture and the photomicrograph of a 1500mg/kg treated kidney tissue [Figure 1] showing glomerular atrophy.
Figure 3: Photomicrograph of control kidney tissue (H and E, ×100) showing normal cytoarchitecture with visible glomeruli (black arrows)

Click here to view


The histological findings of the heart shows the photomicrograph of a heart a heart tissue control [Figure 4] and the photomicrograph of a 1500mg/kg treated heart tissue [Figure 2], both having normal cytoarchitecture.
Figure 4: Photomicrograph of control heart tissue (H and E, ×100) showing normal cytoarchitecture

Click here to view



  Conclusion Top


Although the consumption of different parts of M. oleifera, including the leaves for various purposes, has been widely accepted, M. oleifera leaf extract was found to cause a significant increase in urea and potassium. The histoarchitecture of the kidneys showed distortions. The result showed that M. oleifera is toxic to the kidneys at concentrations higher than 1000 mg/kg.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Agaie B. The role of phytochemicals in optional health. J Natl Acad Child Dev 2004;11:27-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Nat Prod Rep 2000;17:215-34.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ajayi CA, Williams OA, Famuyide OO, Adebayo O. Economic potential of Moringa oleifera as a commercial tree species and its suitability for forest management intervention in taungya farming system. Agrosearch 2014;13:242-55.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Popoola JO, Obembe OO. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:682-91.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Thilza I, Sanni S, Isah Z, Sanni F, Talle M, Joseph M.In vitro antimicrobial activity of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated in eye diseases. Acad Arena 2010;2:80-2.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Tee NT, Lobiya JK, Benneth O. Income benefits of Moringa vis-à-vis other leafy vegetables to female traders in Jalingo markets, Taraba state, Nigeria. IOSR J Humanit Soc Sci 2014;19:55-60.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ajibade TO, Olayemi FO, Arowolo RO. The haematological profile and biochemical effects of ethanol extract of the seeds of Moringa oleifera in rats. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:615-21.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Woodward D, Stuart R. The Vermont Safe Information Resources, Incorporated. Material Safety Data Sheet Collection; 2007. Available from: http://www.hazard.com/msds/tox/f/q77/q479.html. [Last retrieved on 2015 Aug 21].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mazumder UK, Gupta M, Chakrabarti S, Pal D. Evaluation of hematological and hepatorenal functions of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera lam. Root treated mice. Indian J Exp Biol 1999;37:612-4.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Nikkon F, Hassan S, Salam KA, Mosaddik MA, Khondkar P, Hague ME, et al. Benzylcarbamothioethionate from root bark of Moringa oleifera lam. and its toxicological evaluation. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plantas Med Aromaticas 2009;8:130-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Prince KR, Johnson LI, Feriwick H. The chemical and structural alterations induced by Moringa on cardiac tissue of Wistar ratss. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2010;26:127-35.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Verma AR, Vijayakumar M, Mathela CS, Rao CV. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:2196-201.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Sreelatha S, Padma PR. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2009;64:303-11.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Bharali R, Zatalia SR, Sanusi H. Retinoprotective effects of Moringa oleifera via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic mechanisms in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2003;11:55-64.  Back to cited text no. 14
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Result and Discu...
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed254    
    Printed49    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded54    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]